**Jubril Ahmed**wriites,

It is a common subject of argument amongst students of tertiary institutions on which of E and F grades is better.

Many students believe that E is better because it saves them from carrying courses over to a new session and consequently complicating their tasks, adding to their definite workload.

Conversely, students prefer F to E. This category of students believes that they can do excellently when they carry courses over to the next session and boost their CGPA, rather than settling for E, which will shrink it.

The above argument can be analysed through a comparison of Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) using UDUS as a case study:

Suppose there are two UG1 students (X and Y).

Student X had the following grades;

Courses Units Grade and GP

ECON101 3 F = 0

EDU101 3 A = 15

EDU103 2 B = 8

EDU107 2 A = 10

MATH101 3 C = 9

Total Grade Points (GP) = 42

Grade Point Average (GPA) = 42 ÷ 13 = 3.23

Student Y, a coursemate of X, had the following grades in the same courses;

Courses Units Grade and GP

ECON101 3 E = 3

EDU101 3 A = 15 (same as X)

EDU103 2 B = 8 (same as X)

EDU107 2 A = 10 (same as X)

MATH101 3 C = 9 (same as X)

Total Grade Points (GP) = 45

Grade Point Average (GPA) = 45 ÷ 13 = 3.46

Furthermore, since student X had an F in a UG1 course, he would carry it over to UG2.

Thus, suppose he had the following grades in UG2;

Courses Units Grade and GP

ECON101 3 A = 15

ECON202 3 A = 15

EDU201 3 A = 15

EDU204 2 B = 8

EDU208 2 C = 6

MATH202 3 C = 9

Total Grade Points for UG2 (GP) = 68

Grade Point Average (GPA) for UG2 = 68 ÷ 16 = 4.25

Cumulative Grade Points Average (CGPA) at UG2: 110 ÷ 29 = 3.79

Note: Student X carried over Econ101 and had A upon rewriting it.

Suppose student Y offered the same courses as student X, excluding ECON101, which he did not carry over, had the following grades;

Courses Units Grade and GP

ECON202 3 A = 15 (same as X)

EDU201 3 A = 15 (same as X)

EDU204 2 B = 8 (same as X)

EDU208 2 C = 6 (same as X)

MATH202 3 C = 9 (same as X)

Total Grade Points for UG2 (GP) = 53

Grade Point Average (GPA) for UG2 = 53 ÷ 13 = 4.08

Cumulative Grade Points Average (CGPA) at UG2: 98÷26=3.77

From the above analyses, it is salient that the CGPA of student X is higher than that of student Y as he had an A in the ECON101 he carried over.

Now, suppose student X had a B rather than A after rewriting ECON101. His CGPA at UG2 would have been;

110 – 3 = 107 ÷ 29 = 3.69

Since B = 4, 4×3 = 12

And A = 5, 5×3=15

Hence, 15 – 12 = 3.

In conclusion, an F is better than an E grade only if the student is certain of having an A when he rewrites the course. This reason also constitutes the “but!”. Any grade other than an A will make the CGPA of student Y higher.

However, for finalists, E is better than F because it saves them time, psychological, and financial costs of an additional year after their mates have graduated.

However, the exception to this rule is if having an E can deprive him of a particular class of degree, [e.g; from 2:1 to 2:2], or if having an F and subsequently passing the course with an A, upon spilling, can elevate him to another class of degree, [e.g; from 2:2 to 2:1] and he is a hundred percent sure of having A when he spills.